Solid-State Fusion (SSF)

The case for Solid-State Fusion (SSF)

Richard Feynman was right. There is plenty room at the bottom and the quantum revolution has only begun. From transistors to superconducting materials, scientists have only begun to understand the behavior of matter at the nanometer level where quantum effects dominate. Can these properties be used to enable Solid-State Fusion (SSF), a phenomena that is also referred to as cold fusion or low energy nuclear reactions (LENR)?

Scientists from the US, EU, Japan, India, and China have independently observed the production of excess heat when nano-materials, made of metallic composites, react with hydrogen isotopes and controlled heat. While a consistent theory to explain this phenomenon has yet to be proposed, the coherent or collective effects at the quantum level are thought to enable reaction pathways that are not explained with nuclear science.

Unlike fusion reactors that require 100s of millions of degrees, LENR occurs at less than 1000 degrees, saving time and costs. | Photo Credit: Francesco Ungaro on Pexels

According to government funded studies in Japan, SSF is estimated to be four orders of magnitude higher than the equivalent chemical reaction per unit of hydrogen atom. No radioactive materials or radiation are produced. Unlike fusion reactors that require 100s of millions of degrees, SSF occurs at less than 1000 degrees.

Concurrent developments in hydrogen energy systems, metallurgy, nano materials, quantum science, and semiconductor manufacturing are enabling SSF to move forward.

Since 2015, government agencies in Japan, EU, and the US have funded public R&D programs in SSF.

Discover SSF at

Government funded SSF programs

US Labs

Army Research Lab
Naval Research Lab


University of Limerick (Ireland)
Aalto University (Finland)
Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic)
CNRS - National Centre for Scientific Research (France)
Imperial College London (UK)
Technical University of Munich (Germany)
University of Turku (Finland)

NEDO (Japan)

Tohoku University
Kyushu University
Kobe University
Osaka University
The following books provide an overview of the history, observations, experiments, theories on SSF for scientists and non-scientists alike.

Books about Solid-State Fusion (SSF)

Cold Fusion: Advances in Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

Jean-Paul Biberian
Cold Fusion provides a concise description of the existing technological approaches in cold fusion or low energy nuclear reaction engineering.

Hacking the Atom: Explorations in Nuclear Research

Steven B. Krivit
A rare behind-the-scenes look at the players and personalities involved in low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) research between 1990 and 2015.

Excess Heat: Why Cold Fusion Prevailed

Charles G. Beaudette
An investigative report prepared for the general reader to explain how the most extraordinary claim made in the basic sciences during the twentieth century was mistakenly dismissed through errors of scientific protocol.

Fire From Ice

Eugene F. Mallove
All the major twists and turns of the cold fusion story are related with a modest amount of technical detail; it should be quite intelligible to laypeople.

The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction

Edmund Sturms
This book covers the history and science behind cold fusion as well as recent developments in the field's technology.

Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia

Steven B. Krivit, et al
The encyclopedia is packed with cutting-edge information about where nuclear energy science and technology came from, where they are today, and what the future may hold for this vital technology.

The Explanation of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction

Edmund Storms
Surveys observational data generated by LENR experiments: essential reading for those interested in how LENR works.

Nuclear Transmutation: The Reality of Cold Fusion

Tadahiko Mizuno
An excellent beginning for those who want to learn more about the cold fusion story: covers one scientist's experience on the frontiers of knowledge.

Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions Sourcebook

Jan Marwan & Steven B. Krivit
This book offers further insight into LENR substantiated by previously unpublished studies as well as new and controversial theories to approach LENR with access to new sources and experimental results.
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